(Revised September 1ST, 1913)


Junior Grade.

3. Drawing and Manual Work Ύ


            First and Second Primers. Ύ To acquire dexterity and skill of hand by constructing and making objects; to gain a knowledge of the forms, triangle, square, oblong, etc.; to know right side, left side, front, back, edge, corner angle ; to know such terms as turn, fold, etc. ; and, in short, to increase the vocabulary of the child and assist in language lesson.

            Exercises selected from such work as Mat-weaving, Plasticene Modelling, Raffia-work, and Colour-work will be valuable in helping to form habits of accuracy, neatness, order, and inculceate a love of industry and habits of patience, perseverance, and self-reliance.

            Text-book. Ύ Educational Handwork. T.B. Kidner (pubished by  Educational Book Co.). For teacher use only.

Suggested Syllubus from above Book.

            First Primer. Ύ First folding exercises,  page 18.  Stars, page 25. Frames,

page 26.

            First Primer and Second Primer. Ύ Second Key form, page 30. Pattern-

Making. 34, 35. Cutting leaves, fruit, and objects. Cut the crosses of

St. George, St. Andrew, and St. Patrick.

Second Primer. Ύ Constructive work, page 42. Patterns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8.

            Use some of these exercises for drawing lessons. None of the measurements should be less than half an inch.

            Paper Folding and Cutting Materials. No. 204. For Constructive work,

No. 2192, Milton Bradley Co.


(See Educational Handwork—Kidner.)

            Begin by modeling a sphere, then develop it into a square, rectangle,

triangle, circle, semicircle, oval, cylinder, cube, cone, pyramid.

            Turn these Type models into a can, the cube into a house, or a sphere into a

vase. Focus the attention on the form or shape to be made.


            Good book on the subject: Primary Work. By Wilhelmina Seegmillar.

(Published by Atkinson, Mentzer & Grover, Chicago.)

            Mat-weaving paper, NO. 1110. Weaving-needles, No 395. Milton Bradley Co.


            For a series of lessons in Colour-work and for information on the teaching

of the subject, see the page headed “A Series of Lessons in Colour-work.”

            An excellent work on the association of Brush-work with the language

lesson: Nature Studies and Fairy Tales. By C. I. Dodd. (Published by

Thomas Nelson & Sons, Edinburgh.)

            Note.--Use Reeves’ Three-colour Box.

                In drawing with the pencil, develop a free light touch, a movement similar

to that used when working with a brush. The command of the hand thus

gained will help the writing, which should also be done lightly. Heavy

pressure prevents freedom of movement in forming the written letters, as well as in making food forms while drawing.

            First Primer. Ύ Text-books of Art Education (Prang), Books I. and II., for

teacher only.

            Second Primer. Ύ Text-books of Art Education (Prang), Books II. and III.,

For teacher only.

            First Reader. Ύ Text-books of Art Education, Books III. And IV., for teacher only. Pupils should have prescribed Drawing-book No. I.

            Second Reader. Ύ Text-book of Art Education, Book IV., for teacher only.

Pupils should have prescribed Drawing-book No. II.

            In drawing from objects, begin with those which are flat, having no

perspective. These lead to cylindrical objects, then to cubical, in the upper


            In the First Primer classes draw a great deal from description. The main object should be to use the materials freely and with assurance. Later on insist on greater accuracy of reproduction.

            When the Junior Grade is completed, pupils should be able to measure from half an inch upwards.

            Also know without hesitation the following: Ύ


                                    vertical           rectangle or oblong          cube

                                    horizontal       circle                                sphere

                                    angle              semicircle                         cone

                                    triangle           quadrant                           pyramid

                                    square             oval                                  perimeter

Good Books on Drawing and Painting for the Teacher

            Text-books of Art Education (Prang). Books I. To VII.

            Augsburg’s Drawing Series, Bks. I., II., III.   (Educational Publishing Co., Toronto.)

            A Course in Water Colours for the First Eight Years in School (Prang).

            Practical Notes on Colour-mixing for School Teachers. By an Expert. Reeves. Price sixpence. London, Eng.)

            Monthly Magazine Ύ The School Arts Book.  (Price $1.75 post free to Canada. School Arts Co., 120 Boylston St., Boston.)

            Read notes on page headed “Pointers for the Teacher.” Teachers should select from the foregoing Course what they consider best suited to the individual requirements of their classes. The full Course in Drawing and Brush-work must, however, be taught in all graded schools. Moreover, the work in Paper Folding and Cutting, Plastercene Modeling, and Mat-weaving must be undertaken in all city schools of the first class, and in all other graded schools where the work is recommended by the Provincial Inspector of Schools. Boards of School Trustees are expected to provide necessary materials.

Intermediate Grade.

3. Drawing Ύ The pupils should have a compass and a set-squares, 45° and 60°.

            Ruler, hard pencil H, and soft pencil B. Prescribed Drawing-book III.

            Before entering the Senior Grade, pupils should be able to measure inches, halves, quarters, eights, centimeters, and millimeters.

            Exercises should be given in using set-squares, drawing parallel lines, and setting out measurements exactly.

            They should know without hesitation the following : Ύ


square                          cone                      cube

                        rectangle or oblong     cylinder                base

sphere                          pyramid                circle                                                                               oval                                    diagonal                 number of degrees in a circle

perimeter                     diameter               quadrant

parallel lines                angles                   semicircle

parallelograms             triangles               circumference

cube                             acute angle           arc

triangular prism           obtuse angle         radius

square prism                right angle            radii

            All of these terms are used in Milne’s Arithmetic, Book II., up to page 145. as required in this grade.


            In this grade cylindrical objects should be mastered. The plain cylinder should be looked upon as the type model only. The application of its principles to every-day objects should be pointed out. The correct drawing of a cylinder is therefore only a means to and end. The teacher should not wait too long before trying to apply the principles learned.

            Draw from memory frequently. The success is attained when those who are taught not only draw correctly, but enjoy drawing and make use of drawing habitually.


Drawing and Nature Study should be closely correlated.

            The name, initials, and date should be neatly placed on every sheet.

Note.—Principles to be observed in drawing cylindrical objects:

I.                    The circle in perspective appears as an ellipse.

II.                 The ellipse appears more nearly circular as it falls below the level of the eye.

III.               The ellipse appears more nearly circular as it rises above the level of the eye.

IV.              The ellipse is equal in width on each side of its diameter.

V.                 The axis of a cylindrical object and the diameter of the top and bottom are always at right angles.

VI.              The object should always be drawn out first, lightly and freely: then tested by drawing the construction lines—i.e., the axis and diameters.

Read over carefully “Six Steps in Drawing for the Teacher.”


            If no Colour-work has been done before reaching this grade, begin with the Primary Grade work.

            The ruler and set-square exercises and brush-work should be correlated.

Let the squares, oblongs, or circles be drawn geometrically. i.e., with the

ruler, set-squares, and compasses; and without erasing any lines whatever.

paint in the brush forms. The construction lines give guidance to the brush.

Read over carefully the “Three Steps in Colour-work for the Teacher.”

            Brush-work and Nature Study should be closely correlated. The studies

from real flowers and fruit may then be adapted to the geometrical con-


            Draw out and colour the cross of St. George, the cross of  St.Andrew, and

the cross of St. Patrick.

            Draw out to measurement and colour the Union Jack.

            (See Our Flag. What it Means. By Major W. J. Wright, Brockvill, Ont.)

Constructive Work

(From Educational Handwork—Kidner.)

These are Measuring exercises; exact workmanship must be insisted on.

Thin cardboard or very stout paper to be used.

            The following form good Home-work:—

                Envelope Exercise 18 ( Kidner)………………….page    80

                     “                 “    21   .…………………………   “       84

                     “                “    26   ………………………….   “        92

                Cube ………………………………………....…..   “   134

                Square prism …………………………………….   “    135

                Triangular prism ………………………………...   “      118

                Square pyramid ……………………… …………   “    136

                Cylinder ………………………………………....   “    138

                Cone ………………………………….………….   “   139

            Use these solids for the drawing lesson.

Senior Grade.

3. Drawing— Master the drawing of cubical objects as well as cylindrical. Pre-

       scribed Drawing books required. Books IV. and IVA,. omitting problems in

       Practical Solid Geometry, 15-26 inclusive. Draw from memory frequently.


Note,— Principles to be observed in drawing cubical objects : A square or oblong

           surface held    horizontally on a level with the eye will be seen as a straight line. As it

           rises above or falls below the level of the eye more of the surface will be seen. Objects

           of equal size will appear less as they vary in distance from the spectator. The  “Six

           Steps in Drawing” must be observed by the teacher.

Read text-books on Art Education, Books VI. And VII. (Prang); or, Drawing for

           High Schools (Prang).


    To develop freedom and control of the hand, the brush is unexcelled. In

training taste for good form, proportion, and an appreciation of free radiating

curves and forms, the flexible point of the brush is perfect.

    The teacher will find the exercise help the writing.

    The Geometrical, Colour, and Nature work should be correlated. Let the

designs be based on geometrical constructions.

    Encourage the pupils to recognize colour schemes in the flowers, insects,

birds, etc. Adapt these schemes to their own designs. Keep the work simple.

    Study the notes for teachers on Colour-work.

    Reference works: Practical Notes on Colour-micing for School Teachers.

By an Expert. (Reeves. London, England. Price Cd.) A Course in Water

Coulours for the First Eight Years in School. (Prang.)


    Book IVA.

    Draw with an II or IIII pencil. See that the compasses are in good con-

dition and pencils sharp. Have two pencils, one for the compass and one to

use with the ruler.

    Do not allow the pupil to take the compass-pencil out to use with the ruler.

    Construction lines must be light. Result of problem clear and distinct. No

erasing, if possible.

    After teaching three or four problems, originate one of your own, based

upon the problems taught.

    Give this as a dictation exercise, thus: Draw any triangle. Letter it

A. B. C. Bisect each side and draw bisectors until they meet in one point.

Mark this point D. With D as center and DA as radius, describe a circle.

The circle should pass exactly through points A, B. C. Or put some figure

on the board, taking care to hide its construction. Let the class find out how

it is made.

    Pattern-work should be simple, and should really be the application of geometrical problems previously taught.

    Insist on accuracy, good workmanship, and a  knowledge of the geometrical problems.

    Correlate Brush-work and Geometry as much as possible.


    Before drawing plans and elevations in Book IVA., give some smart drill

to the class on practice paper, sketching the views freehand, and insisting on

each pupil understanding the subject.

    The object must be distinctly seen by the mind’s eye before it can be drawn correctly. The difference between a plan, elevation, and perspective drawing

must be clearly understood.

    Make the following models if necessary (Construction from Educational Handwork—Kidner), viz.:

                 Cube……………………………………………….page 134

                 Square prism………………………………………    “   135

                 Triangular prism…………………………………..    “   118

                 Square pyramid…………………………………...    “    136

                 Cylinder…………………………………………...    “   138

                 Cone…………………………………………….…    “   139


    The Senior class should be able to draw a very simple and accurate scale,

and from it to draw some plain object such as a picture-frame, window, etc.

    Insist on accuracy, and be sure the work is understood.



    Good judgment should be shown in placing the name and date on the sheet.

The printing should be direct, a regular slant, and well spaced, not with ruler

and set-squares, but by the eye. The Roman capitals and lower-case letters

should be mastered.



   Always be sure the pupils have a good view of the object or group of objects which

they are expected to reproduce.

   Do not fix a small flower on the backboard for the whole class to draw from, and

expect good results.

   Do not place the objects always below the level of the eye, but in all manner of

unusual positions.

   Be prepared for the lesson. Know what you are going to do some time in advance;

do not decide on the subject five minutes before the commencement of the lesson.

   Be methodical. Have a plan.

   Let your lesson bear upon and emphasize some other previous lesson if possible.

   Thoughtful, well-organized lessons give a high average result.


Text Box: (3 mins.) mmins.mins.


Primary or Fundamental Colours.

Red.                               Blue.                           Yellow.

Secondary or Complimentary.

                            Green.                            Purple                          Orange.

                           (Blue and Yellow)                      (Blue and Red)                          (Yellow and Red)

                           Russet.                           Citrine.                          Olive.

                           (Reddish Gray.)                         (Yellowish Gray)                      (Bluish Gray)


                        Primary                        Secondary or Complimentary                             Tertiary

Red          +             Green (blue and yellow)          =          Olive (bluish gray).

Yellow     +            Purple (blue and red)                =         Citrine (yellowish gray).

Blue         +            Orange (red and yellow)           =         Russet ( reddish gray).


     NOTE.— In order to obtain the tertiary, the remaining primary is added to the secondary.


Three Steps in Colour-work for the teacher.

                                                                                                                 (Read up)


    Reeves Three colour Box.

    Separate dish for water.

    Direct the pupils to be careful of the paints and brushes.

    Must not dry the brush by rubbing it on the cloth.

    Must not pull hairs out.

    Put brush away dam, with hairs drawn gently to a fine point.







A Series of Lessons in Colour-work.

I.                    Have a talk about the colours. Primary colours. How to take care of them. The washing and care of brushes, etc.

II.                 A wash of yellow.

III.               A wash of blue.

IV.              Awash of red.

V.                 How to paint fine lines with the point of the brush. Method: Dip into the pool of colour. Draw the brush over the edge of the box-lid until nearly all the colour is out of the brush. Hold the brush vertically.

VI.              More fine lines.

VII.            Wash of green.

VIII.         Wash of purple.

IX.              Wash of orange.

X.                 Rainbow wash— that is, practice in running one colour into another. Introduce as much interest into these exercises as possible, Thus the children will master the difficulties in handling the materials, and be prepare to paint such things as simple leaves, fruits, flowers, and easy objects.


DRAWING. (Time. 2½ hours.)

(a.)  Geometrical.

1.Make drawings of your set-squares when the longest side of each is 4 inches.

2. Divide a circle 3 inches diameter into 3 equal parts by lines drawn from its

           center. Give the size of the angles formed by the radii.

3. Show the largest square that can be cut out of a circle 3 inches diameter.

4.On a straight line AB 4 inches long, find a point K so that KA shall be

      three-fifths of KB.

5. Draw a line 3 inches long for an I.I. For the elevation draw two circles 1½

           inches and 1 inch diameter, and having a common center; the center to

           be 2 inches above the I.I. This is the elevation of two circular slabs,

           each one inch thick, the larger one touching the V.P., and the smaller one

           projecting from the larger one. Draw the plan.

Note—Set-squares must not be used in questions 1, 2, and 3.

(b.)  Freehand.


The drawing below represents one-half of the copy. Make a full-sized drawing to

          fill a rectangle 4 inches by 7 inches, and print the works “EDUCATION

          DEPARTMENT” on the scroll.




(c.)   Book-work

Select three pieces of work from your drawing-books, as follows:

(0.) An example of pattern-drawing.

(1.)  An example of freehand-drawing.

(2.)  An example of object-drawing.

Write your name, age , and school on each example.

(3.) Model and Object.

Draw from memory a square prism and an inverted flower-pot, resting on a board;

          and shade the group when the light falls from the left.



Printed by WILLIAM H. CULLIN, Printer to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty.