Regulations and Courses of Study for Provincial Normal Schools 1928-1929


The professional training of elementary-school teachers in British Columbia is provided for in two Normal Schools, one in Vancouver and the other in Victoria .

The first Normal School to be established in the Province was opened in Vancouver in January 1901.  It was moved into its present quarters in 1909.  For several years past a lack of accommodation has been felt in this school and steps have been taken to erect a new wing which will contain an up-to-date science-room, and manual-arts room, two rooms for instruction in home economics, and a double-sized room for a library and students' reading room.  With this important addition the Vancouver Normal School will have satisfactory accommodation for a maximum of 300 students.

The Victoria Normal School was opened in Victoria in January 1915 and is well equipped to handle a maximum of 200 students.  An elementary practice school or model school of two divisions is also housed in the Normal School building.  Whereas the students in attendance at the Vancouver school come from Greater Vancouver and the lower mainland, those attending the Victoria school come from Vancouver Island, the upper mainland (north of the 50th parallel), the coast islands, and the interior (east of Yale).

Before 1920 both Normal Schools gave four months' courses and issued third-class certificates to those who successfully completed these courses.  Permanent first- and second-class certificates were issued to students who successfully completed the nine months' course - second class to those who entered Normal School with Grade XI or Junior Matriculation standing and first class to those having Grade XII or Senior Matriculation standing or better.  Since 1920 no third-class certificates have been issued and no short course offered.  All first- and second-class certificates now issued are now interim and may be made permanent at the conclusion of two years' successful experience, on the recommendation of a Public School Inspector.


Candidates for admission to either of the Provincial Normal Schools should write to the Principal for an application form, in which full instructions are given, also further information as to requirements of admission.  Each applicant for admission is required to pass a medical examination by a medical officer, appointed by the Minister of Education, before being finally accepted.  The application for admission to the Normal School must be accompanied by a satisfactory certificate of good character obtained within three months of the time of making application.  The minimum academic standing for admission to the Normal School is the Entrance to Normal Certificate, which requires that, in addition to Junior Matriculation requirements in English, history, and mathematics, the candidate must have completed the Grade XI course in one foreign language, one science, and in geography.  Candidates for admission who hold a Grade XII or Senior Matriculation certificate or who have completed the requirements at least for first-year standing at the Provincial University are not required at present to write on Normal Entrance geography.  Applicants from other provinces, from the Mother-country, or from other parts of the British Empire must have their entrance qualifications approved by the Education Department, and hence should forward their certificates to the Registrar, Education Office, Victoria , B.C., some time in advance of the opening of the season.

Length of Session

The session for 1928-29 opens on September 11th, 1928, and closes on June 14th, 1929 .  The Christmas vacation begins on December 22nd, 1928, and ends on January 7th, 1929 .  The Easter vacation and all other school holidays as authorized by the Council of Public Instruction are observed in connection with the Normal Schools.

Fees and Travelling Expenses

The sessional fee is $40, half of which is payable on the opening of the session in September and the other half on the reopening of the school in January.  Payment of fees is made to the Principal, or to such officer as he may designate.

Travelling expenses of students attending the Normal Schools, calculated at the rate of 5 cents per mile, both to and from the school attended, will be paid by the Superintendent of Education on behalf of the Council of Public Instruction, at the close of the session, on the certificate of the Principal as to regularity of attendance and mileage covered.

Duties of Principals and Staff

The Principal shall be responsible for the discipline and management of the school.  He shall prescribe the duties of the staff, subject to the approval of the Council of Public Instruction.  He shall have supervision over the methods employed in the teaching of all subjects in the Model School.

He shall make all necessary arrangements with the local school authorities concerned for the students' observation and practice-teaching and, when considered advisable, shall hold conferences with the staffs of the various practice-schools with a view of establishing harmony and consistency as between educational principles and approved teaching practice.  He shall designate one of the lady members of the staff to act as counsellor to female teachers-in-training, who shall exercise a kind and judicious oversight of their social activities throughout the session.  He shall hold conferences with his staff from time to time for the purpose of securing harmonious and concerted actions in all matters pertaining to the welfare of the school and the teachers-in-training, and for the further purpose of receiving and discussing contributions from members of the staff along the line of recent educational research.

It shall be the duty of the teaching staff to carry out the instructions of the Principal with regard to discipline, management, and all matters affecting the efficiency of the Normal School and the progress on the students.

Duties of Teachers-in-Training

Students shall attend regularly and punctually throughout the session and shall submit to such rules and regulations of the school as may be prescribed by the Principal.

Students shall take all tests and examinations prescribed in the Principal.  Such examinations will be conducted by the staff of the Normal School.

The students of the Normal School shall be required to supply themselves with a complete set of the books authorized for use in Elementary Schools of the Province in addition to the special text-books prescribed for use in the Normal School Course.  No student shall be permitted to lodge or board at any house disapproved of by the Principal and men and women students are not permitted to lodge at the same house except by his special permission.

If, in the judgment of the Faculty of Instructors, the capacity, attainments, and progress of any student are not such as to warrant his or her longer attendance at the Provincial Normal School, or if in their judgment the manners, habits, temperament, sentiment, or character of the student are not such as to fit him or her to have charge of children, it shall be the duty of the Principal to report such judgment to the Superintendent of Education, who, on being satisfied of its correctness, may require such student to withdraw from the institution.

All students are expected to participate in the activities of the Literary Society, the Debating Society, and the Athletic Society, and are required to pay a student activity fee not to exceed $5 per session in support of these student organizations.

Estimated Cost of Normal Course

There are no students' dormitories in connection with either of the Provincial Normal Schools , but board and lodging can be secured at reasonable rates in private homes and boarding-houses.

From past experience the approximate cost of the course may be stated as follows:

Board and lodging $275 to $350
Books and supplies $35 to $40
Extra clothing, laundry, etc. $40 to $50
Car-fare, recreation, and incidentals $40 to $50
  $390 to $490
Student fees $40
Student activities $5

Diplomas and Certificates

Teachers-in-training are recommended by the Principals of the Normal Schools to the Department of Education for diplomas upon the merits of their achievement in all departments of Normal School work, including: (1) Knowledge of the subject matter of instruction and of method in the teaching of the various elementary-school subjects as set forth in the curriculum of studies for British Columbia schools; (2) working knowledge of the science of education and of the principles and practice of school administration; (3) ability to teach and to conduct a school; (4) personal fitness for the life and work of a teacher.  Each teacher who has been granted the Normal School diploma may make application to the Registrar, Department of Education, Victoria , for a Teacher's Interim Certificate, First or Second Class, as the case may be, enclosing the registration fee of $5.

If the candidate has already completed the work of Grade XII.(Senior Matriculation), or holds First-year University standing (evidence of which must be furnished), an Interim First-class Certificate will be granted, otherwise a Second-class Interim will be granted.  Application for a First-class Certificate can be made by a Normal School graduate at any time upon the completion of Senior Matriculation or First-year College standing.

Apportionment of Time to Subjects

The Normal School programme provides for seven class periods per day, including class-room instruction, reading, and study periods, observations and teaching practice, each period being of approximately forty-five minutes' duration.

The minimum and maximum number of class periods to be devoted to the various subjects of instruction for the full Normal School session are as follows:

Subject Periods
School Administration 50 to 60
Educational Psychology 20 to 25
Measurements, Graphics, and Statistics 20 to 25
Educational Movements and Sociology 30 to 35
Arithmetic 50 to 60
Geography 50 to 60
History and Civics 50 to 60
Nature-study and Agriculture 50 to 60
Primary Grade and Manual Arts 50 to 60
Grammar 25 to 30
Writing 25 to 30
Reading 20 to 25
Composition and Spelling 30 to 35
Drawing and Art 60 to 70
Music and Voice-training 60 to 70
Home Economics 60 to 70
Health Education 30 to 35
Physical Education 60 to 70

Courses of Study

School Administration - The Modern Meaning of School Administration

The School and the Child

The teacher's responsibility in knowing the physical, mental, social, and moral status of the child in school.
Factors determining grading and promotion of school-children; the value of standardized intelligence and achievement tests as aids in determining such grading.
The special care and management of the problem child – the gifted child, the subnormal child, those abnormal physically and temperamentally, those defective in speech, hearing, eyesight, training, and social privilege.
The problem of discipline – a positive attitude on the part of both teacher and pupil resulting in right conduct and added social responsibility.
Interest and motivation; rewards and punishments.  Routine class-room management – assembling, dismissing, giving of signals and commands, punctuality and regularity of attendance.
School Law of British Columbia relating to duties of pupils and parents.

The School Programme

The modern concept of "curriculum," its essential characteristics and the teacher's relation to it.  The time-table or daily school programme – variations to suit different types of schools.
The tendency towards departmentalization of instruction in graded schools, advantages and possible dangers; the platoon school and its operation.
The keeping of registers, pupil records, and report cards, and method of interpreting and using the data compiled.
School law and regulations relating to the above.

The Method of Instruction

The meaning of experience and its significance in the learning process.
The meaning and method of study; lesson assignments – occasions, character, and extent; the proper use of the text-book.
The meaning and method of the recitation, the teacher's part, the pupil's part; the socialized recitation; motivation and the project method; questions and questioning.
Lesson types and lesson plans.
Testing as a phase of instruction; new forms and methods of examination.
Extra-curricular activities.

The Teacher

Qualifications and characteristics of a successful teacher; conduct and ethical standards.
The teacher as leader and friend (a) in the classroom; (b) on the playground; (c) in the community.

Relationship to inspectors, supervisors, trustee, and parents.
Attitude towards professional improvement.
School law and regulations relating to duties of teachers and school boards; teacher's tenure and agreements.

Reference Books

Sears, Classroom Organization and Control (New Edition).
Thomas, Principles and Technique of Teaching.
Almack and Lang, Problems of the Teacher Profession.
Bagley, Classroom Management.
Freeland, Modern Elementary School Practice.
Ruch, Improvement of the Written Examination.
Woofter, Teaching in Rural Schools.

Educational Psychology

Nature and scope of educational psychology.
Necessity of applying scientific methods in the educational field.
The nervous system, including special sense organs.
The stimulus-response theory and its implications.
Original nature; intelligence, special capacities, instincts, reflexes.
The psychological meaning of environment; the modification and development of original nature as a result of environment.
Child development during the pre-school stage.
Child development during the elementary-school stage.
General modes of human behaviour; perception, memory, imagination, ideation, thinking, feeling, emotion.
Transfer of training; in laws of learning.
The role of habit in child-life; play and the play spirit in education; motivation.
Abnormality; mental hygiene.
Adolescence; character and responsibility.

Reference Books

Cameron, Educational Psychology (Revised Edition).
Gates, Psychology for Students of Education (Revised Edition).
Starch, Educational Psychology.
Warren, Elements of Human Psychology.
Pyle, The Psychology of Learning (Revised Edition).
La Rue, Psychology for Teachers.
La Rue, Mental Hygiene.

Measurement, Statistic, and Graphics

Purposes and methods of educational measurement.
Construction of sample tests; study of typical standardized tests; individual and group intelligence tests – appropriate use of each; standardized achievement tests; mental age; intelligence quotient.
Classification and tabulation of quantitative data; graphic representation of frequency distributions; how to obtain the mean, median, percentiles, quartile and standard deviations in a frequency distribution; simple correlation; meaning and characteristics of the normal curve.

Reference Books

Monroe, DeVoss & Kelly, Educational Tests and Measurements (Revised Edition).
Hines, A Guide to Educational Measurements.
Russell, Classroom Tests.
Ruch, Improvements of the Written Examination.
Paterson, Preparation and Use of the New-Type Examination.
Thurstone, The Fundamentals of Statistics.
Rugg, A Primer of Graphics and Statistics.
Williams, Graphic Methods in Education.

Educational Movements and Sociology

The great social and educational movements of the past that have helped to shape our modern educational ideas and school practices.
Important educational developments in Europe and America since the beginning of the last century.
Current problems and modern trends in education.
The present educational situation in Canada .
The problem of the rural school – economic, social and educational.
The industrial revolution and the problem of the city school.
The meaning and development of social institutions.
The school as a social institution and its relation to modern social problems.
The meaning of civilization and social inheritance.

Reference Books

Parker, History of Modern Elementary Education.
Grave, A Student's History of Education.
Smith, Principles of Educational Sociology.
Williamson, Introduction to Sociology.


Changing concepts and modern requirements in arithmetic – emphasis on number facts and operations in actual daily use and the bear close relationship to existing human needs.
An introduction to the official programme of studies in arithmetic by grades up to and including Grade IX.
An appreciation of the progressive increase in the difficulty and complexity of the operations involved in the course with each advancing grade.
Appropriateness of the assignments in arithmetic to the present knowledge and ability of the pupils, grade by grade, as well as to their future needs.
A more critical review of the course, with detailed treatment of selected topics from the work of each grade.
The place of arithmetic in correlation with other subjects.
Importance of realism in the presentation of all numerical situations.
Equipment and special devices to facilitate worth-while review of arithmetic operations and as aids in the maintaining of interest.
The use of standardized test and of practice material in arithmetic.

Reference Books

Leunes, The teaching of Arithmetic.
Overman, A Course in Arithmetic for Teachers.
Overman, Principles and Methods of Teaching Arithmetic.
Osburn, A Socialized Study of Corrective Arithmetic.
Thorndike, The New Methods in Arithmetic.
Newcomb, Modern Methods of Teaching Arithmetic.
Stone, The Teaching of Arithmetic.


The human interest point of view – the relation of man to his environment.
An analysis of the prescribed course for elementary schools.
Relationship of geography to nature-study in lower grades, with emphasis on home or local geography; use and management of excursions to points of local interest.
Home-life in other lands treated by means of type lessons.
Use of the project method in the study of geography in all grades; emphasis on development of pupil activities; training in the use of the atlas.
Elementary physical geography – first-hand studies for higher grades.
Demonstration lessons on selected topics as a basis for class discussion.
Use of maps, diagrams, charts, graphs, globes, lantern-slides, and geography readers.
A study of geographic controls by taking some of the world's most productive regions and considering the life of the people in those regions.
Type study of a continent for higher grades, making use of the psychological approach.
A more intensive study of the Dominion of Canada under large natural divisions such the prairie provinces, the St. Lawrence valley, and the eastern and western maritime areas.
A close survey of British Columbia, centering the study around our most distinctive industries.
United States and the continents treated briefly by comparison.
Trade and commerce in the study of world geography and with relation to the British Empire.

Reference Books

Dodge & Kirchway, The Teaching of Geography.
Sutherland, The Teaching of Geography.
Scott, The Teaching of Geography in Canadian Elementary Schools.
Skeat, The Principles of Geography.
Archer, Lewis, & Chapman: The Teaching of Geography in Elementary Schools.
Branom, The Measurement of Achievement in Geography.
Stevens, Applied Geography.
Reeder, Method of Directing Children's Study of Geography.

History and Civics

Aims and objectives in the teaching of history, civics, and citizenship.
A consideration of the matter of instruction as outlined for use in the Elementary and Junior High School grades and its organization to suit the grades.
The planning and elaboration of history stories correlated with language-work and story-telling; biography in relation to history in all grades.
Dramatization as an aid to effective history-teaching.
Demonstration lessons for the elucidation of important points in lesson procedure.
The treatment and significance of periods in the history of a country, with emphasis on the social life of the period.
Importance of local history; excursions to points of peculiar historic interest.
Project studies in history; sources for information; correlation with other subjects.
How to use the history text to greatest advantage.
Importance of abundant supplementary reading, with guidance in choosing same.
Study of civics at first hand; principles of citizenship and practical application of same in the matter of student participation in school activities.

Reference Books

Jarvis, The Teaching of History.
Johnson, The Teaching of History.
Keatinge, Studies in the Teaching of History.
Broune, The Teaching of History and Civics.
Angus, Citizenship in British Columbia.
Hill, Community Civics.
Knowlton, History and Other Social Studies.
Knowlton, Owen & Chapman, The Teaching of History in Elementary Schools.
McCaig, Studies in Citizenship.
Trotter, Canadian History.

Language and Composition

The aims and methods of language-work in the grades, dealing with the topics as set forth in the Programme of Studies.
Importance of oral composition in the first six grades; written composition stressed more in Grade VII. And VIII.
Importance of the teacher's example; incidental teaching; "every teacher a teacher of English."
Value of wide reading and of memorizing good literature as an aid to oral and written composition.
Choice of topics for composition-work; the gathering, selecting, and arranging of material.
Letter-writing and business forms; the value of clearness, force, and brevity of expression.
Correction of errors in both oral and written composition.
Paragraph and sentence structure; capitals, punctuation, and signs used.
Language games, debating and public speaking as aids in correct use of language.
Use of standardized test in composition.

Reference Books

Bolenius, The Teaching of Oral English.
Bates, Talks in the Writing of English.
Leonard, Essentials in English.
Fernald, Expressive English.


Grammar as a part of language-study, its nature and meaning.
Review of the subject-matter as outlined in the Programme of Studies for Grades VII and VIII.
Use of the inductive development lesson in the teaching of grammar.
Fundamentals of analysis and classification.
Correction of prevalent grammatical errors.
Lesson plans and demonstration lessons.
Examination of standardized tests in grammar.

Reference Books

Goggin& Morgan, High School Grammar.
Kittredge & Arnold, The Mother Tongue, Books I and II.
MacLaurin, Elementary English Grammar.
Potter, Jeschke & Gillet, Oral and Written English, Books I and II.
Leonard, Grammar and Its Reasons.


The value of oral reading in the mastery of the mechanics of reading, in the increasing of appreciation of fine form and content through vocal expression, and in the ability to interpret written language to others.
The value of silent reading in developing speed as well as power of analysis, taste for good literature, and a desire for continued independent reading.
The general principles of teaching reading.
Type-lesson procedure in teaching oral and silent reading, with occasional demonstration lessons.
The psychology of reading and a discussion of important contributions to the teaching of it.
The testing of reading ability, with an examination of a few of the leading standardized tests.
Methods of improving both oral and silent reading.
Children's reading and the use of the school library.

Reference Books

Huey, The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading.
Stone, Silent Reading.
O'Brien, Silent Reading.
Corson, The Voice and Spiritual Education.
Klapper, Teaching Children to Read.
Gray, Deficiencies in Reading Ability.


An inquiry into what good literature is and its effects upon the reader.
The teacher's own qualifications in order to teach the subject effectively.
Value of extensive and varied reading.
Standards and characteristics of literary selections suitable to the grades; illustrations taken from the assignments in the Programme of Studies for Elementary Schools.
Place and value of good oral reading in the interpretation and appreciation of literature.
A critical study of typical selections taken from the course of study for the grades; demonstration lessons.
Importance of the preparatory step as an aid to interpretation and appreciation.
Broad divisions and plan of selections; beauty and strength brought out in more minute analysis; test of appreciation and final synthesis.
Memorization of choicest passages and best method of doing same.
Suitable tests in literature.
The literary society.

Reference Books

Leonard, Essential Principles of Teaching Readingand Literature.
Fries, Hanford & Steeves, The Teaching of Literature.
Carpenter, Baker & Scott, The Teaching of English.
Bates, Talks on the Teaching of Literature.
Lamborn, The Elements of Criticism.
French, The Appeal of Poetry.
Haliburton, Poetry in the Grades.


A careful examination of the course as prescribed for the schools of British Columbia .
Consideration of satisfactory standard of penmanship for teachers-in-training; importance of blackboard writing for teachers, with training in same.
The psychology of handwriting; general laws of habit formation.
Methods of developing and maintaining interest and enthusiasm among the pupils; concentration of attention; class direction and practice periods – duration and distribution.
Demonstration lessons illustrating the development of the writing process from the receiving class up through the grades.
Special attention to technique – rhythm, posture, pen-holding, movement for the development of legibility, uniformity, rapidity, and ease of writing; left-handedness; penmanship projects; blackboard writing.
Penmanship in ungraded schools; exhibits; graded standards of proficiency; use of tests and writing-scales.

Reference Books

MacLean, The MacLean Method of Writing.
Freeman, The Teaching of Handwriting.
Freeman, Correlated Handwriting.
Arnold & MacLean, Penmanship Stories.
Lister, Muscular Movement Writing Manuals.


The new aims in spelling; causes of incorrect spelling.
Importance of vocabulary selection based on common writing needs.
The laws of learning as applied to spelling.
Importance of visualization and frequent recall.
The difficulties experienced in the correct spelling of certain types of words.
Use of the dictionary; the relation of testing to teaching in spelling; concentration; repetition in attention; visual imagery.
The learning of form by association with meaning and use.
Use of spelling scales and standardized tests.

Reference Books

Cook & O'Shea, The Child and His Spelling.
Tidyman, The Teaching of Spelling.
Gates, The Psychology of Reading and Spelling.


A study of the requirements for Elementary Schools as laid down in the Teachers' Manual of Drawing and Design under the following heads:
Primary drawing and illustrating in crayon and water-colour.
Object drawing from simple representation in two dimensions to rectangular perspective.
Nature drawing in various mediums.
Design – space-filling and application in simple ornament to hand-work exercise; principles of repetition, variety, contrast, symmetry, radiation.
Poster study and lettering.
Care and proper use of drawing equipment – pencils, crayons, brushes, compasses, set-squares, paints, paper, cardboard.
Initiative and independence together with proficiency in workmanship.
Colour-study and relationship to design; blackboard drawing.
Criticism and evaluation of drawings.
History of art as shown in architecture, sculpture, and painting as an aid to art appreciation.
Selection of good pictures for the class-room and how to use them.
Relationship of drawing to other subjects, and its importance in project studies.
Suitable books for the school library and for the teacher's use.

Reference Books

Scott, Weston & Judge, Manual of Drawing and Design.

Nature-Study and Elementary Science

The meaning of nature-study, its place in the elementary school curriculum, and its relationship to other subjects.
Nature-study as an introduction to science and to agriculture.
The essentials of nature-study method; differentiation in both subject-matter and method for primary, intermediate, and advanced grades.
Type studies in the following special fields of nature-study and elementary science selected from the Course of Study for Elementary Schools:

  1. Plant-life Studies – Trees – deciduous and evergreen – spring, autumn, and winter conditions; shrubs and vines; weeds and wild flowers; ferns and fungi; fresh-water and salt-water plants; fruits and vegetables.
  2. Animal-life Studies – Children's pets; domestic animals; wild animal relatives; fur-bearers; insects; birds; fish and other water animals.
  3. School and Home Gardening – A basis for the study of nature and an introduction to elementary agriculture; educational uses of school and home gardens.
  4. Laboratory Studies in Elementary Science.
    Air – physical and chemical properties, with applications to human, animal, and plant life.
    Water – physical and chemical properties, sources, uses, impurities, relationships in all life and industry.
    Heat – sources, transmission and effects, relationship to weather, life, and industry.
    Seed testing and germination studies relating to gardening and plant studies.
    Identification of food substances.
    Soils and soil-forming rocks – relate to geography and agriculture.
    Yeasts and moulds in relation to life, health, and industry.
  5. Weather Study– Weather records; sky studies; identification of most important constellations.

Reference Books

Trafton, The Teaching of Science.
Frank, How to Teach General Science.
Downing, Teaching Science in the Schools.
Eikenberry, The Teaching of General Science.

Vocal Music and Voice Training

Topics for Class Discussion

The educative value of music; its value as a socializing and cultural force in the school and in the community; the need of systematic musical training throughout the grades; ear-training as the basis of musical introduction; value of rhythm in music; the value and the art of conducting; how to inspire and develop the true spirit of music.

Primary Grade Singing

Rote signing, including song games and rhythmic games; tone-matching by means of song sentences; mood in music; dramatization of songs.

Junior and Intermediate Grades

Musical knowledge – use of the modulator; application of the sol-fa syllables to the staff notation; notes, rests, signatures, and musical terms regularly used in music; rhythmic time names; chromatic degrees; modulation to nearly related keys; transposition; ear-training in time and tune ; staff and modulator drill to syllables and singing words; chordal practice; two-part exercises; introduction of bass cleft; simple voice-training exercises; use of vowels and consonants; diphthongs; phrasing and expressions; song-singing.

Rhythmic Work

Rhythmic phrases clapped and stepped; the gavotti; the minuet; music interpretation.

Senior Grades

Training in the singing of unison and two-part songs.  Music appreciation and the historical development of music; the life and work of some of the most famous composers.

Reference Books

Coney & Wickett, The New Canadian Music Course.
Wickett, Songs and Singing Games.

Primary Grade Method and Manual Arts

Subject-matter appropriate to primary grade pupils involving a careful examination of the official Programme of Studies for Grade I.
Characteristics of the young child, including pre-school development.
Essentials of primary grade method.
Importance of the teacher's personality – appearance, manner, tact, energy, sympathy, voice, and musical ability.
Importance of a well-regulated room, pleasing in appearance and well equipped.
Special method in the following subjects:

  1. Reading– Aims and principles underlying modern methods; the pre-primer stage of reading; careful analysis of the authorized Canadian primer; oral and silent reading; devices for practice and extension of a reading vocabulary.
  2. Phonics – Production and classification of speech sounds; consonant and vowel sounds; phonic analysis and ear-training; phonic games.
  3. Language – The conversational language lesson; selection, adaptation, preparation, and presentation of suitable stories for primary grade classes; various forms of story reproduction; dramatization; language projects illustrated by sand-table, booklet, poster, or other manual work.
  4. Number-work– Discussion of general principles underlying the teaching of number; careful examination of the course outlined in the official Programme of Studies for Grade I. And II.; methods of presentation; correlation of number with hand-work; use of objective materials, number games, play materials, number cards, and booklets.
  5. Manual Arts – Modern aim with reference to hand-work in primary grades; its place in project studies in correlation with reading, language, and number-work; procedure in using such activities as paper folding, tearing, and cutting, plasticene modelling, weaving with paper and wool, booklet- and poster-making work to be continued into Grades II., III., and IV.
  6. Health Education – How to teach simple health rules effectively; care of the school-room and of the children day by day; lighting, heating, and ventilation; careful study of the official outline for Grades I. And II.
  7. Demonstration Teaching – Type lessons given in related series to demonstrate technique in teaching progress and correlation of subjects; class discussions based upon these lessons; use of children's songs in correlation with language, nature-study, health-work, number-work, and games.

Reference Books

Sloman, Some Primary Methods.
Pennell & Cusack, How to Teach Reading.
Parker & Temple, Unified Kindergarten and First Grade Teaching.
Stone, How to Teach Primary Numbers.
Bonser & Mossman, Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.

Home Economics


To establish the view that the home is the greatest and most fundamental institution of society and the preparation for worthy membership in it is one of the most important of educational objectives.
To give an understanding of the principles of elementary nutrition and an appreciation of the relation of nutrition to health.
To teach the correct methods of selecting, preparing, and serving foods for simple every-day meals, with special emphasis on the rural noon lunch.
To give practical experience in organization of various social functions, so as to enable the teacher to perform her duties as a social leader in the community.
To give the teacher sufficient knowledge of clothing and art to enable her to teach the values of textiles, selection and construction of simple garments, and artistic home-making.
To teach the simple changes that take place in such raw materials as wool, sugar-beet, etc., to make them useful to man.
To acquaint the students with the wide field of subject-matter available through books, pamphlets, and magazines, so that they may be able to continue the study along the lines offering the greatest interest.

Foods and Nutrition

Food Preservation – Value of fruit and vegetables in the diet; cause of spoilage and various methods of preservation; practical experience in canning, jelly-making, and pickling.
Noon Lunch – Value, organization, and equipment; preparation of suitable foods to be served; lunch-box – contents and container.
Meal Preparation – Planning, preparing, and serving refreshments for social functions; planning, preparing, and serving simple home meals.
Group Projects – Sources and manufacture of various foods; marketing; labour-saving devices; kitchen-planning and equipment; cleansers; dining-room furnishing.
Nutrition – Classification of foods; essentials in a well-planned diet; meal-planning – suitable foods for children; undernourishment; methods of presenting value of foods; poster-making.

Textiles and Clothing.

Aims and purposes for the study of textiles and materials used for clothing.
Practical application showing correlation with geography, history, art, and manual arts.
Garment Construction – Suitable fabrics for different purposes – colour, line, design, quality, and price; drafting kimono pattern and its adaptation to simple garments; making summer or sport dress; exhibition of work.
Group Projects – Manual arts as related to home economics for Grades I. To VI., Public School Course of Study.
Budgeting of teacher's income; investments; interior decoration.
NOTE – See Public School Course of Study; budgeting of teacher's income; investments; interior decoration.

Reference Books

Rose, Foundations of Nutrition.
Rose, Feefing the Family.
Winchell, Food Facts for Everyday.
Harris & Lacey, Everyday Foods.
Roberts, Nutrition Work in Children.
Goldstein, Art in Everyday Life.
Bonser & Mossman, Industrial Arts for Elementary Schools.
Buttrick, Principles of Clothing Selection.
Trilling & Williams, A Girl's Problem in Home Economics.

Health Education

Meaning and aims of health education; relation to efficiency in all school-work; effects upon the individual and upon the community.
Importance of the teacher's own health and of a healthful environment in which to study and work – as a normal student and later as a teacher.
Personal and community hygiene; a careful study of the authorized course of study by grades; character of the subject-matter suitable for primary grades and for higher grades; difference in type of motivation for higher as contrasted with lower grades.
Structure and functions of the following systems as a basis for the daily practice of hygiene:
Bones and joints – posture studies, prevention of commonly acquired deformities, correction of foot troubles.
Muscular system – locomotion, posture, rational exercise, specific exercises for boys and girls of different ages (physical training), relation to mental and physical development and control.
Digestive system, relation to exercise, study of the teeth as part of the digestive system.  (Nutrition to be taken in home economics.)
Circulation – value of rational exercise, bad effects of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco.
Respiratory system – importance of correct breathing, care and management of the voice, bad effects of alcohol and tobacco; ventilation – temperature and humidity, air movements and importance of fresh air; dust and bacteria.
The excretory system – skin and kidneys – bathing, clothing, and exercise, dangers to the kidneys of wrong diet, drugs, and alcohol.
Nervous system and its relation to body controls, effects of overexertion, fatigue, worry; need of judicious exercise, rest, and recreation; ill effects of alcohol, drugs, and tobacco operating through the nervous system; care and instruction of the nervous child.

The special sense – eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and skin in relation to the nervous system, with the hygiene of each; special attention to the lighting of rooms and conservation of eyesight.
Communicable diseases – causes, symptoms, how transmitted, preventive measures, individual and community responsibility, duties of health departments – local and provincial.  Special attention to tuberculosis and its remedial treatment.
Sanitation – water-supply – sources, contamination, methods of purification, food protection, storage, disposal of refuse.
Accident-prevention and first aid.
Use of diagrams, charts, posters, lantern-slides, etc., as aids in health-teaching.
Importance of co-operation with school authorities and with the home.

Reference Books

Ritchie, Human Physiology.
Williams, Personal Hygiene Applied.
Woods Hutchinson, The New Handbook of Health.
Thomas D. Wood, Health Training in Schools.
Hill, The New Public Health.
National Tuberculosis Association, Health Trends in Secondary Education.
Fraser & Porter, Canadian Health Book.

Physical Education


This course aims to give teachers-in-training a better understanding of the true character of physical education and of its place in the general problem of education.  It aims to interest the teacher in his or her own health to develop an ideal of health, and later, in the health and physical efficiency of the pupils.


The psychology of play.  Why people play; the play of children and the play of adults; age periods and changing play interests; sex differences in play; relationship of play to health – physical, mental , and moral; play as a prevention to juvenile delinquency; leadership.
The historical development of play – relation to past civilizations and to social evolution; effect of the World War; legislation affecting physical education.
The theory of gymnastics – systematic and unsystematic movements; meaning and purpose of graduated exercises; fundamental gymnastic movements.
Lesson-planning and construction of exercises; management of the class, commands, demonstrations, tests, records, and administration.
Qualifications of the successful teacher.
Relationship to and correlation with health education; importance of the medical examination.


Natural activities, as in plays, dance forms, and occupations.  Mimetic exercises simulating various movements in every-day work and play.
Games – graduated to suit all ages and all types of environments, in the school-room and out-of-doors; free play, natural activities, simple juvenile games, dancing and singing games.
Athletic sports – highly organized team games for higher grades.
Tournaments, track and field events, with practice in organizing and conducting same.
Dramatic activities – folk-dancing, rhythmic dancing, character, and pantomime.
Formal gymnastics – marching, open order formations, relief exercises between periods during the day
Posture education – mental response to posture situations, individual corrective exercises.

Reference Books

Williams, Principles of Physical Education.
Wood & Cassidy, The New Physical Education.
Rice, A Brief History of Education.
American Child Health Association, Health in Play.
Wild & White, Physical Education for Elementary Schools.
Bancroft, Games for the Playground, Home, School, and Gymnasium.
Forbush & Allan, The Books of Games for Home, School, and Playground.
Sharp, An Introduction to the English Country Dance.
Burchenal, Dances of Old Homelands.
Ross, Graded Games for Rural Schools.
Ocker, Physical Education for Primary Schools.
Playground Association of America, Recreative Athletics.

Source: British Columbia. Department of Education. Regulations and Courses of Study for Provincial Normal Schools, 1928 - 1929 (Victoria: King's Printer, 1928). 20 pp.
Transcribed by Brian Simmons, History 349, Malaspina University-College, Spring 2002.